History

Some of the key milestones and periods in the history of the Cheviots are:

Circa 13000 BC: the last of the ice left the Cheviots.

The Paleolithic period followed.  There are no human traces from this date in the Cheviots, but there are a few in southern Scotland.

8000 BC – 4000 BC marks the Mesolithic.  A time dominated by hunter-gatherers.  Their flints are sometimes found in the Cheviots, particularly from later in the period.

4000 BC: farming arrives in Britain with the Neolithic, although possibly later in the north.  Import of domestic stock such as goats.

2200 BC: Advent of metalworking with the Bronze Age.  There are Bronze Age cairns and farms in the Cheviots.

700 BC: Iron gradually starts to replace bronze, although there are few early Iron Age relics in the Cheviots. The late Iron Age saw the construction of hilltop camps.

AD 70 – AD  80: The Romans become active in the modern border region. Dere Street built, almost certainly repurposing earlier tracks.

AD 410: The Roman withdrawal complete.  Little evidence of Early Medieval activity in the Cheviots, apart from forts like Moat Knowe.

Post AD 1066: The invading Normans make recorded land grants in the Cheviots.  Development of farming and summer pasturage.

AD 1300: The Late Medieval and the start of the Anglo-Scottish troubles that lasted for 300 years.  The Black Death in AD 1349.

AD 1603: The Unification of the Crowns.  Peace returns and with it the growth of permanent upland farms.

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