Some of the key milestones and periods in the history of the Cheviots are:
Circa 13000 BC: the last of the ice left the Cheviots.
The Paleolithic period followed. There are no human traces from this date in the Cheviots, but there are a few in southern Scotland.
8000 BC – 4000 BC marks the Mesolithic. A time dominated by hunter-gatherers. Their flints are sometimes found in the Cheviots, particularly from later in the period.
4000 BC: farming arrives in Britain with the Neolithic, although possibly later in the north. Import of domestic stock such as goats.
2200 BC: Advent of metalworking with the Bronze Age. There are Bronze Age cairns and farms in the Cheviots.
700 BC: Iron gradually starts to replace bronze, although there are few early Iron Age relics in the Cheviots. The late Iron Age saw the construction of hilltop camps.
AD 70 – AD 80: The Romans become active in the modern border region. Dere Street built, almost certainly repurposing earlier tracks.
AD 410: The Roman withdrawal complete. Little evidence of Early Medieval activity in the Cheviots, apart from forts like Moat Knowe.
Post AD 1066: The invading Normans make recorded land grants in the Cheviots. Development of farming and summer pasturage.
AD 1300: The Late Medieval and the start of the Anglo-Scottish troubles that lasted for 300 years. The Black Death in AD 1349.
AD 1603: The Unification of the Crowns. Peace returns and with it the growth of permanent upland farms.